Why the US Constitution Appears to Be AI-Generated

In the age of advanced language models like ChatGPT, the use of AI in various fields has become a subject of both fascination and concern. One intriguing aspect is the ability of AI writing detection tools to mistakenly label authentic human-written text as AI-generated. This phenomenon has led to amusing yet thought-provoking instances, such as the classification of excerpts from the US Constitution as “likely to be written entirely by AI.” In this blog post, we delve into the reasons behind these false positives, exploring insights from experts and the creator of the AI writing detection tool GPTZero.

The Educational Quandary:

The infiltration of generative AI into educational settings has sparked discussions about the potential existential crisis it poses. Reports of professors failing entire classes due to suspicion of AI tool usage and unjust accusations against students highlight the confusion and apprehension surrounding AI-generated writing. This has left educators grappling with ways to adapt their traditional methods of evaluating student mastery, often reliant on essays as a means of assessment.

The Reliability Challenge:

While it may be tempting to rely on AI writing detection tools to identify AI-generated text, recent evidence has shown their unreliability. Popular tools like GPTZero, ZeroGPT, and OpenAI’s Text Classifier, despite their advanced capabilities, struggle to accurately detect text composed by large language models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT. These tools often produce false positives, leading to misidentifications and misleading conclusions.

The Curious Case of the US Constitution:

One prominent example of the AI writing detection conundrum is the misclassification of excerpts from the US Constitution. When fed into GPTZero, it confidently asserts that the text is “likely to be written entirely by AI.” Screenshots of similar results from other AI detectors have circulated on social media, causing confusion and giving rise to humorous speculations about the founding fathers being robots. Remarkably, similar misclassifications have also occurred with excerpts from The Bible.

Exploring the Reasons:

To shed light on this phenomenon, we turn to experts and the creator of GPTZero. One factor contributing to the false positives is the sophistication of LLMs like ChatGPT, which closely mimic human writing styles and patterns. The AI writing detection tools struggle to differentiate between AI-generated text and genuinely human-written content, as the boundaries become increasingly blurred.

Moreover, the lack of specific training data for distinguishing AI-generated text further compounds the challenge. The rapid evolution of language models has outpaced the development of effective detection mechanisms. Consequently, the detectors often rely on patterns and statistical correlations, resulting in occasional misclassifications.

The Path Forward:

As the detection of AI-generated writing continues to perplex researchers and educators alike, it is crucial to refine and improve the accuracy of AI writing detection tools. This requires dedicated efforts to gather comprehensive training data that encompasses the diverse nuances of human writing across different time periods, styles, and genres.

Additionally, collaboration between AI researchers, linguists, and educators is essential to address the educational implications and establish guidelines for responsible AI tool usage. Striking a balance between harnessing the potential of AI in education while preserving the integrity of traditional assessment methods is a complex but necessary endeavor.


The misclassification of the US Constitution and other texts as AI-generated highlights the limitations of current AI writing detection tools. False positives remain a persistent challenge due to the intricacies of language models like ChatGPT and the scarcity of comprehensive training data. While the phenomenon sparks amusement and curiosity, it also underscores the need for further research, collaboration, and refinement of AI writing detection tools. By understanding these challenges, we can navigate the evolving landscape of AI in education and make informed decisions about its integration into traditional learning methodologies.


Source: Arstechnica

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